Lithium batteries are a family of various chemistries, including many kinds of electrolytes and cathodes. These batteries require 0.15 - 0.3 kilograms of lithium per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The most common lithium cell that is used in numerous consumer applications features an anode of metallic lithium and a cathode of manganese dioxide, together with a solution of an organic solvent and a lithium salt.
G. N. Lewis, an engineer, was the first to attempt to create a lithium-ion battery. However, it wasn't until in the 1970s that the non-rechargeable lithium battery was commercially accessible. Thereafter, in the 1980s, there were attempts to develop rechargeable Li-ion batteries; however, these attempts failed because of the intrinsic instability of these lithium batteries, together with subsequent safety concerns.
Specialised lithium batteries, with a lifetime of at least 15 years, are used in electronic medical devices, such as pacemakers, which are implanted in parts of the human body.
Lithium batteries are also used in less critical applications, such as in operating motors in electronic gadgets.
Lithium batteries are an economical preference to alkaline cells in devices such as cameras, watches and clocks, the standard oceanographic pack, because of the long operational life of the lithium batteries.